Sulfones slideshare

Sulfonamide - SlideShar

  1. On SlideShare. 0 From Embeds. 0 Number of Embeds. 1 Actions. Shares. 0. Downloads. 281 Comments. 0 Likes. 61 No notes for slide. Sulfonamide 1. Made by Mahbubur Rahman &Ananta sutradhar Jagannath university Mahbub: 01915923493 2..
  2. g SlideShare. Loading in Sulfones Dapsone 12. 12 NH2 SO2 NH2 p-a
  3. Med.chem sulfonamides. 1. SulphonamideSSulphonamideS Prepared by Mr. Dharmendrasinh A Baria Assistant professor Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry Smt. S. M. Shah Pharmacy college, Amsaran 1. 2. Description • One of the oldest antibacterial agents used to combat infection • Used for coccal infection in 1935 • They are bacteriostatic.
  4. Sulphonamide. Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs. The original antibacterial sulfonamides are synthetic antimicrobial agents that contain the sulfonamide group. Read more
  5. obenzene)sulfonyl]aniline Dapsone, also known as dia
  6. sulfones prove to be of great value in organic synthesis,6 especially in selective fluoroalkylation reactions.7 To the best of our knowledge, however, practical methods for the preparation of monofluorinated sulfones via selective fluorination of non-fluorinated sulfones are rare.8.


  1. Sulfonamides, thioethers, sulfones and Penicillin are the most common scaffolds in sulfur containing drugs, which are well studied both on synthesis and application during the past decades. In this review, these four moieties in pharmaceuticals and recent advances in the synthesis of the corresponding core scaffolds are presented
  2. sulfone to o-benzylbenzenesulfinic acid. This rearrangement is generally carried out under two distinct conditions: metalation of diaryl sulfones by BuLi in ether and by KOBut in DMSO. Under both conditions, the three isomers of mesityl tolylsulfones give three different products with retention of the tolyl orientations
  3. Sulphonamides and Sulfones Historical development, chemistry, classification, and SAR of Sulfonamides; UNIT - V . Introduction to Drug Design Various approaches used in drug design; Combinatorial Chemistry: Concept and applications chemistry: solid phase and solution phase synthesis. Pharmacology-III Notes & Books PDF Downloa
  4. Before the development of sulfone drug therapy in the 1940s, treatment for leprosy was supportive only. Because of the fear of contagion, individuals with leprosy were ostracized from society. The Louisiana Leper Home (shown) was established in 1894 to provide a place of refuge, not reproach; a place of treatment and research, not detention.
  5. e components, glyoxylic acid, and aryl- or alkenylboronic acids tolerates a broad range of functional groups and provides a wide array of α-a

Fluensulfone is a newly registered nematicide that has a favourable toxicity profile relative to previously used nematicides. Fluensulfone has proven efficacy in the field against a range of. Thiazosulfone | C9H9N3O2S2 | CID 10124 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities.

Med.chem sulfonamides - SlideShar

*Sulfasalazine also has an antibacterial effect. Are sulfonamides safe? Sulfonamide-containing drugs are frequently implicated in allergic and non-allergic reactions.The term sulfa allergy (or sulfur allergy) most commonly refers to an immunological response to sulfonamides, and it is a term that is often misused and misinterpreted The discovery of two cyclooxygenase (COX)-isoenzymes, a constitutive COX-1, serving homeostatic prostanoid synthesis, and an inducible COX-2, responsible for proinflammatory prostanoid production, led to the development of new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the selective COX-2 inhibitors, promising minimal NSAID-typical toxicity with full anti-inflammatory efficacy

'sulfonamides' on SlideShare

Sulphonamide - SlideShar

  1. ation with sodium amalgam to furnish the alkene takes place in a second step
  2. Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Infection can lead to damage of the nerves, respiratory tract, skin, and eyes. This nerve damage may result in a lack of ability to feel pain, which can lead to the loss of parts of a person's extremities from repeated injuries or infection due to unnoticed.
  3. What are Anti-Malarial Drugs - Malaria is a serious disease in a country like India. Our country on an average 1 out of 7 people is facing the risk of malaria. 90 percent of malarial death happens in rural areas
  4. o-sulfone with anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. As a structural analog of p-a

Desulfurization is usually discussed in terms of sulfur removal from lighter refinery cuts, such as naphtha, distillate, and light vacuum gas oil fractions. The purpose of the present review paper is to provide an overview of the different conversion strategies that can be employed for desulfurization of heavy oils Our results provide a strong evidence that HDF has no advantage over HD with respect to urea and creatinine removal in vivo. However, HDF did improve the elimination of phosphate and should be considered as an additional treatment option for hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. HDF improves signi Sulfones / therapeutic use United States Substances Immunosuppressive Agents Ophthalmic Solutions Sulfones lifitegrast Phenylalanine Cyclosporine. Sulphonation. Sulfonation increases the surface of the graphene Zeta potential, thus has high dispersion property in aqueous solution, which ensures the high interaction of sulfonated graphene with aromatic pollutants and thereby assures the high adsorption of organic dyes on sulfonated graphene (Zhao et al., 2011)

An easy and handy synthesis of sulfonamides directly from sulfonic acids or its sodium salts is performed under microwave irradiation, has shown a good functional group tolerance, and is high yielding. L. De Luca, G. Giacomelli, J. Org. Chem., 2008 , 73, 3967-3969. The combination of H 2 O 2 and SOCl 2 is a highly reactive reagent for the. Sulfone syndrome. Rare hypersensitivity reaction that begins 1 to 4 weeks after administration. Signs include fever, malaise, exfoliative dermatitis, jaundice with hepatic necrosis, lympadenopathy, methemoglobinemia, and anemia. At least partially reversible if stop drug and give corticosteroids. May be worse in poorly nourished patients

Antileprotic drugs - SlideShar

In an equivalence trial, the statistical test aims at showing that two treatments are not too different in characteristics, where not too different is defined in a clinical manner. Finally, in a non-inferiority trial, the aim is to show that an experimental treatment is not (much) worse than a standard treatment Most antimicrobial drugs currently in clinical use are antibacterial because the prokaryotic cell provides a greater variety of unique targets for selective toxicity, in comparison to fungi, parasites, and viruses. Each class of antibacterial drugs has a unique mode of action (the way in which a drug affects microbes at the cellular level), and. Figure 1, Panel a shows the exposure-response relationship for ceftolozane in combination with tazobactam, a penicillanic acid sulfone derivative, derived from data generated in a one-compartment in vitro infection model [6].The seven CTX-M-15-producing challenge isolates were genetically diverse and produced different β-lactamases [TEM-1, OXA1/30, OXA-1], with up and down-regulated drug.

and sulfone - each contributing specific properties to the polymer. The complex repeating structure imparts inherent properties to the polymer that conventionally are gained only by the use of stabilizers or other modifiers. The most distinctive feature of the backbone chain is the diphenylene sulfone group: O O S diphenylene sulfone Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint - Beautifully designed chart and diagram s for PowerPoint with visually stunning graphics and animation effects. Our new CrystalGraphics Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint is a collection of over 1000 impressively designed data-driven chart and editable diagram s guaranteed to impress any audience resistance. Nylons, polycarbonates, polyether sulfones, and polyacetals are examples of this group. Another important and growing market for plastics is the automotive field. Many automobile parts are now made of plastics. Among the most used polymers are polystyrene polymers and copolymers, polypropylene, polycarbonates, and polyvinyl chloride

drugs containing a sulfone group. However, our in vitro study is limited by the absence of a controlled exposure test and patch tests, with the result that a positive LTT result does not necessarily imply a clinical response. We think epitopes in sulfonamides may differ between patients and that the antibodies to these drugs could hav loss of appetite, dizziness, blurred vision, ringing in the ears, headache, insomnia, or. increased sensitivity of the skin to sunlight. Tell your doctor if you have unlikely but serious side effects of dapsone including: unusually fast heartbeat B. Pharmacy 3 rd Year Subjects and Syllabus. According to reports every year millions of students are joining B. Pharmacy to study Pharmacy as this is one of the finest education degrees. In the 3rd year of B. Pharm degree, every candidate shall be required to work for at least 150 hours spread over four weeks in a Pharmaceutical Industry/Hospital

In medicinal chemistry, bioisosteres are chemical substituents or groups with similar physical or chemical properties which produce broadly similar biological properties to another chemical compound. In drug design, the purpose of exchanging one bioisostere for another is to enhance the desired biological or physical properties of a compound without making significant changes in chemical. An allylic rearrangement or allylic shift is an organic reaction in which the double bond in an allyl chemical compound shifts to the next carbon atom. It is encountered in nucleophilic substitution.. In reaction conditions that favor a S N 1 reaction mechanism, the intermediate is a carbocation for which several resonance structures are possible. This explains the product distribution (or. Leprosy stigma is a type of social stigma, a strong negative feeling towards a person with leprosy relating to their moral status in society. It is also referred to as leprosy-related stigma, leprostigma, and stigma of leprosy. Since ancient times leprosy instilled the practice of fear and avoidance in many societies because of the associated. Acid-base reaction - Acid-base reaction - Nonaqueous solvents: Although acid-base properties have been investigated most thoroughly in aqueous solutions, partly because of their practical importance, water is in many respects an abnormal solvent. In particular, it has a higher dielectric constant (a measure of the ability of the medium to reduce the force between two electric charges. Reduction Potential - Reduction potential is defined as the potential of a cell consisting of the electrode in question acting as a cathode and the standard hydrogen electrogen acting as an anode. Reduction always takes place at the cathode and oxidation at the anode. Visit BYJUS to learn more about reduction potential


Organic Chemistr

Sulfones: Dapsone*. Unit V (07 Hours) Introduction to Drug Design. Various approaches used in drug design. Physicochemical parameters used in quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) such as partition coefficient, Hammet's electronic parameter, Tafts steric parameter and Hansch analysis Need for Antioxidants in Adhesives Antioxidants are used in a variety of adhesive formulations to protect against degradation caused by reaction with atmospheric oxygen.The increasingly demanding requirements which modern adhesives are expected to meet, can only be achieved and retained by using appropriate stabilizer systems

Lovastatin, sold under the brand name Mevacor among others, is a statin medication, to treat high blood cholesterol and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Its use is recommended together with lifestyle changes. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include diarrhea, constipation, headache, muscles pains, rash, and trouble sleeping. Serious side effects may include liver problems. Odevixibat is being evaluated in the ongoing PEDFIC 2 open-label trial (NCT03659916) designed to assess long-term safety and durability of response in a cohort of patients rolled over from PEDFIC 1 and a second cohort of PFIC patients who are not eligible for PEDFIC 1.Odevixibat is also currently being evaluated in a second Phase 3 clinical trial, BOLD (NCT04336722), in patients with biliary. Antibiotics—Antimicrobials of microbial origin, the majority of which are formed by fungi or Streptomyces bacteria. Antimicrobials—In the case of infectious diseases, this means that the medication is not an antibiotic in the strict sense of originating from a germ or virus, but it is often used in the treatment of pathogens.. Bactericidal—Antimicrobial action that kills bacteria as well.

Antibiotics in dentistryFIAA Training - Forensic Arson Analysis and Process

Sulfur Containing Scaffolds in Drugs: Synthesis and

In a palladium catalyzed Negishi-type α-arylation of sulfones and sulfonamides with a broad range of aryl bromides, the substrates are selectively metalated in situ with tmp·ZnCl·LiCl base and cross-coupled in the presence of a catalyst system that is generated from Pd(dba) 2 and XPhos The oxidation can be continued by reaction with a peroxyacid to produce the sulfone (R 2 SO 2) A common example of a sulfoxide is the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). DMSO is polar aprotic solvent. Figure AB16.3. DMSO is a very polar, aprotic solvent. Contributors and Attributions One-Step Process. Into 100 g of polymeric isocyanate, 0.8 g of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-l-phospholine oxide, 2.1 g of methanol and 2.1 g of 2,4,6-tris (dimethylaminomethyl) phenol are mixed and stirred for 15 sec. After 10 sec of mixing, foam rise starts, and the rise time is 60 sec. Low-friable foamed products result

Erythromycin A is an erythromycin that consists of erythronolide A having 2,6-dideoxy-3-C-methyl-3-O-methyl-alpha-L-ribo-hexopyranosyl and 3,4,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-beta-D-xylo-hexopyranosyl residues attahced at positions 4 and 6 respectively. It is an erythromycin and a cyclic ketone. It derives from an erythronolide A.It is a conjugate base of an erythromycin A(1+) Cathepsin S is a member of the cysteine cathepsin protease family. It is a lysosomal protease which can promote degradation of damaged or unwanted proteins in the endo-lysosomal pathway. Additionally, it has more specific roles such as MHC class II antigen presentation, where it is important in the degradation of the invariant chain. Unsurprisingly, mis-regulation has implicated cathepsin S in. MODANAFIL Modafinil; 68693-11-8; Provigil; Modiodal; 2-[(diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]acetamide; Modafinilum [Latin] Molecular Formula: C15H15NO2S Molecular Weight: 273.35 g/mol Patent EP0966962 and Patent US2002043207. Modafinil (INN,[6] USAN, BAN, JAN) is a wakefulness-promoting agent (or eugeroic) used for treatment of disorders such as narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and excessive. Introduction to Bioconjugation. Bioconjugation is a chemical technique used to couple two molecules together, at least one of which is a biomolecule, such as a carbohydrate, nucleic acid, or protein. Proteins are especially diverse biomolecules due to the variety of amino acids available and are thus important substrates in bioconjugation.

Hydrastis has anticatarrhal, antiinflammatory, and antiseptic activities and is used as an astringent, bitter tonic, laxative, antidiabetic, and muscular stimulant. The astringent effect is on mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, the bladder, the rectum, and the skin Oral signs are frequently the first manifestation of autoimmune diseases. For this reason, dentists play an important role in the detection of emerging autoimmune pathologies. Indeed, an early diagnosis can play a decisive role in improving the quality of treatment strategies as well as quality of life. This can be obtained thanks to specific knowledge of oral manifestations of autoimmune.

Calcareous soils generally have a high carbonate content of the micromass, occurring in the form of micritic or microsparitic crystals. The b-fabric is crystallitic (Bullock et al., 1985), due to the bright small punctuations caused by the optical anisotropy of the small crystals.This fabric has also been termed K-fabric (Gile et al., 1965), crystic plasmic fabric (Brewer, 1964; Sehgal. Ion exchange chromatography is employed by the Genopure Plasmid Midi Kit and the Genopure Plasmid Maxi Kit. The isolation method is based on a modified alkaline lysis protocol and can be divided into the following steps also outlined in Figure 1: Harvest and disruption of the bacterial cells. Precipitation of the bacterial chromosomal DNA 7 solvent is more prominent. In extreme cases, with a mixing ratio of 50 to 1, for example, errors made in preparation can significantly affect retention times, and Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action. Optimal use of PPIs is aided by an understanding of their pharmacology. PPIs are weak bases, incompletely absorbed, and have short half-lives (0.6-1.9 hours). They accumulate and activate in an acid environment at the secretory canalicular surface of the parietal cell Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers

Phase I Acute radiation syndrome Most Recent Events. 22 Apr 2016 Phase I development is ongoing in the US (PO & SC) 20 Mar 2014 Recilisib receives Orphan Drug status for Acute radiation syndrome in USA 03 Oct 2012 Phase-I clinical trials in Acute radiation syndrome in USA (PO) Ex-Rad (or Ex-RAD), also known by the code name ON 01210.Na, or recilisib sodium (INN, USAN) is a drug developed by. sulfone, which is widely used in paints and is a powerful known carcinogen. The respiratory system and skin are the most significant routes for poisoning from chemicals in paints and stains. The good news is that low-VOC or no-VOC paints and stains are becoming more widely available to the consumer. See our list of products below for some examples

In organosulfur compound: Disulfides and polysulfides and their oxidized products. The characteristic flavour of the shiitake mushroom is due to the presence of the acyclic disulfide-sulfone CH 3 SO 2 CH 2 SCH 2 SCH 2 SSCH 3 together with several cyclic polysulfides, including lenthionine; thiarubrine is a novel biologically active acetylenic cyclic disulfide found in plants related to marigolds Tazobactam is a beta Lactamase Inhibitor. The mechanism of action of tazobactam is as a beta Lactamase Inhibitor. Tazobactam is a penicillanic acid sulfone derivative and beta-lactamase inhibitor with antibacterial activity. Tazobactam contains a beta-lactam ring and irreversibly binds to beta-lactamase at or near its active site Sulfonamides (sulfa drugs) are drugs that are derived from sulfanilamide, a sulfur-containing chemical.Most sulfonamides are antibiotics, but some are prescribed for treating ulcerative colitis.Sulfonamide antibiotics work by disrupting the production of dihydrofolic acid, a form of folic acid that bacteria and human cells use for producing proteins

Tema 5 1º bach tangencias y enlaces v4

Sulfone Polymers Market by Products, Applications & Regional Growth by 2019-2024 - The Sulfone Polymers Market share report provides numbers for applications and regional segments of the industry covering historical as well as forecast data for decision makers sulfone membrane with a fixed blood flow rate, they determined continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CWH) to yield greater clear­ ances across both small (urea, creatinine) and large (vancomycin) molecules than continu­ ous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), or continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD). The greater the dependence o

Bio2RDF Release 2: Improved coverage, interoperability and

Abstract and Figures. Sterile implants and devices should be introduced into any animal body, in order to avoid nosocomial infection which can subsequently cause implant failure and serious. November 21,2013 | By Márcio Barra Daiichi Sankyo's edoxaban proved as effective and safer than warfarin in a Phase III trial of patients with atrial fibrillation, according to the results presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions yesterday and published simultaneously online in The New England Journal of Medicine. The trial, entitled ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48, compared two. Thiophilic adsorption is a highly selective type of protein-ligand interaction that combines the properties of hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) and ammonium sulfate precipitation (the lyotropic effect). The interaction is termed thiophilic because it involves the binding of proteins to a sulfone group in close proximity to a thioether

B Pharmacy 3rd Year Notes & Books PDF Download - 5th & 6th

Thioether Sulfoxide Sulfone R S R' 146. 293 Bioactivation and detoxication of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide: P450 O H2O P450 OH HO O benzo[a]pyrene OH HO DNA glutathione transferase G-S OH HO HO SG N N N N NH2 DNA N N N N OH HO HO NH DNA O2 Glutathione (G-SH) H3N H N N H CO2 O2C O SH O 294 Sulfides (thioethers) - sulfur analogs of ethers (-)-ephedrine is a phenethylamine alkaloid that is 2-phenylethanamine substituted by a methyl group at the amino nitrogen and a methyl and a hydroxy group at position 2 and 1 respectively. It has a role as a nasal decongestant, a sympathomimetic agent, a vasoconstrictor agent, a xenobiotic, an environmental contaminant, a plant metabolite and a bacterial metabolite the Sulfone Derivatives in Lepromatous Leprosy, by Drs. Paulo Rath de Souza and Moacir de Souza Lima, reprinted in the July-September issue of THE JOURNAL last year. They state that the action is probably on some mechanism which they call the Virchow cell-Hansen bacillus complex, and that the sulfones Aldicarb sulfone Aldicarb sulfoxide Ametryn Aminocarb Azoxystrobin Benalaxyl Bendiocarb Benzoximate Bitertanol Boscalid Bromuconazole I Bromuconazole II Bupirimate Buprofezin Butafenacil Butocarboxim Butoxycarboxim Carbaryl Carbendazim Carbetamide Carbofuran Carbofuran-3-hydroxy Carboxin Carfentrazone-ethyl Chlorantraniliprol Leprosy (or Hansen's disease) is a chronic, progressive bacterial infection that can cause disfigurement and disability if left untreated. Discover the symptoms and see pictures. Get the facts.

Leprosy: Slideshow - Medscap

Both optical isomers can undergo further oxidation (CYP-catalysed) to form albendazole sulfone. Question 3: Name one analytical chemistry technique for distinguishing between optical isomers. Mebendazole. Mebendazole is a vermicide used in the treatment of infections caused by helminths such as roundworms, pinworms, and whipworm. Its mechanism. Erythro. The descriptors erythro and threo are used to distinguish between diastereomers containing only two chiral centers, which are adjacent and bearing two pairs of common ligands (1). If, in the Fischer projection, like ligands are on the same side of the bond linking the chiral centers, the compound is identified as the erythro isomer; if.

Sulfonamide synthesis by alkylation or arylatio

Relaxation is a phenomenon that occurs when amorphous polymer chains form abnormally denser regions. This densification can adversely affect performance by causing embrittlement, dimensional change and/or the development of internal stresses. DSC is a useful tool for studying this phenomenon known as physical aging Rearrangement Reactions. In chemistry a rearrangement is a chemical reaction in which the carbon skeleton of a molecule is rearranged to give a structural isomer of the original molecule. The rearrangement is - like the substitution reaction and the addition reaction - one of the basic operations of chemical synthesis Engineering polymers are a group of polymers that have better mechanical and/or thermal properties than the more widely used commodity polymers (such as polystyrene, PVC, polypropylene and polyethylene). Being more expensive, engineering polymers are produced in lower quantities and tend to be used for smaller objects or low-volume applications. burning in your eyes, and. skin pain followed by a red or purple skin rash that spreads and causes blistering and peeling. Get medical help right away, if you have any of the symptoms listed above. The most common side effects of Dapsone include: stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, headache

(PDF) Mode of action studies on the nematicide fluensulfon

However, migration of a methyl group both stabilizes the cation (it becomes tertiary instead of secondary) and allows E1 elimination of a proton to take place to give a stable alkene. The migration of an alkyl group to a cationic centre is known as a Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement or Wagner-Meerwein shift 1 Thin Layer Chromatography. Thin layer chromatography, or TLC, is a method for analyzing mixtures by separating the compounds in the mixture. TLC can be used to help determine the number of components in THE CHEMISTRY OF PESTICIDES WaIter R. Benson . Pesticide.f Brallch, DivisiO/l of Food Chemistr} Bureall of Science -ood and Drug Administration

Thiazosulfone C9H9N3O2S2 - PubChe

Thiazolidinediones (also called glitazones) are a class of medicines that may be used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. They are a type of oral hypoglycemic (a medicine that lowers blood glucose levels). Thiazolidinediones bind to a receptor called the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma in adipocytes (fat cells) and promote. EXAMPLE OF INDUCTIVE EFFECT. The C-Cl bond in the butyl chloride, CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -Cl is polarized due to electronegativity difference. The electrons are withdrawn by the chlorine atom. Thus the first carbon atom gets partial positive charge. In turn, this carbon atom drags electron density partially from the next carbon, which also gets. Tests for the Functional Groups Present in Organic Compounds Molecules of organic compounds except that of hydrocarbons can be divided into two parts, a reactive part which is referred to as functional group and a skeleton of carbon atoms called alkyl group. The properties of a compound are largely determined by the functional group. Different [ Key Points. Sulfate reduction is a vital mechanism for bacteria and archaea living in oxygen-depleted, sulfate-rich environments. Sulfate reducers may be organotrophic, using carbon compounds, such as lactate and pyruvate as electron donors, or lithotrophic, and use hydrogen gas (H 2) as an electron donor.; Before sulfate can be used as an electron acceptor, it must be activated by ATP.

sulfone, polyphenylene sulfide, polyether imide, and so on. Thermosettingpolymers:Thermosettshavecross-linkedornetworkstructureswith covalent bonds with all molecules. They do not soften but decompose on heating. Once solidified by cross-linking process they cannot be reshaped. Commo The present text discussed about the recent developments and applications of the Ullmann reaction in respect of the C-C bond formation. The major drawback of the Ullmann reaction, i.e., harsh reaction condition has recently been overcome with the development of various synthetic methodologies. Green synthetic methodologies such as metal-, ligand-, and additive free conditions, recyclable. For β-lactams, bacterial resistance can involve the enzymatic hydrolysis of the β-lactam bond within the β-lactam ring of the drug molecule. Once the β-lactam bond is broken, the drug loses its antibacterial activity. This mechanism of resistance is mediated by β-lactamases, which are the most common mechanism of β-lactam resistance Blood schizonticides: These drugs act on the blood forms of the parasite and thereby terminate clinical attacks of malaria. These are the most important drugs in anti malarial chemotherapy. These include chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, halofantrine, pyrimethamine, sulfadoxine, sulfones, tetracyclines etc FASTA (pronounced FAST-AYE) is a suite of programs for searching nucleotide or protein databases with a query sequence. FASTA itself performs a local heuristic search of a protein or nucleotide database for a query of the same type. FASTX and FASTY translate a nucleotide query for searching a protein database. TFASTX and TFASTY translate a nucleotide database to be searched with a protein query Hansen's disease (also known as leprosy) is an infection caused by slow-growing bacteria called Mycobacterium leprae. It can affect the nerves, skin, eyes, and lining of the nose (nasal mucosa). With early diagnosis and treatment, the disease can be cured. People with Hansen's disease can continue to work and lead an active life during and.